Theory, Applications, and Numerics
MARTIN H. SADD
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics
This text is an outgrowth of lecture notes that I have used in teaching a two-course sequence in theory of elasticity. Part I of the text is designed primarily for the first course, normally taken by beginning graduate students from a variety of engineering disciplines. The purpose of the first course is to introduce students to theory and formulation and to present solutions to some basic problems. In this fashion students see how and why the more fundamental elasticity model of deformation should replace elementary strength of materials analysis. The first course also provides the foundation for more advanced study in related areas of solid mechanics.
More advanced material included in Part II has normally been used for a second course taken by second- and third-year students. However, certain portions of the second part could be easily integrated into the first course. So what is the justification of my entry of another text in the elasticity field? For many years, I have taught this material at several
The elasticity presentation in this book reflects the words used in the title—Theory, Applications and Numerics. Because theory provides the fundamental cornerstone of this field, it is important to first provide a sound theoretical development of elasticity with sufficient rigor to give students a good foundation for the development of solutions to a wide class of problems. The theoretical development is done in an organized and concise manner in order to not lose the attention of the less-mathematically inclined students or the focus of applications.
With a primary goal of solving problems of engineering interest, the text offers numerous applications in contemporary areas, including anisotropic composite and functionally graded materials, fracture mechanics, micromechanics modeling, thermoelastic problems, and computational finite and boundary element methods. Numerous solved example problems and exercises are included in all chapters. What is perhaps the most unique aspect of the text is its integrated use of numerics. By taking the approach that applications of theory need to be observed through calculation and graphical display, numerics is accomplished through the use of MATLAB, one of the most popular engineering software packages. This software is used throughout the text for applications such as: stress and strain transformation, evaluation and plotting of stress and displacement distributions, finite element calculations, and making comparisons between strength of materials, and analytical and numerical elasticity solutions.
With numerical and graphical evaluations, application problems become more interesting and
useful for student learning.
The book is divided into two main parts; the first emphasizes formulation details and elementary applications. Chapter 1 provides a mathematical background for the formulation of elasticity through a review of scalar, vector, and tensor field theory. Cartesian index tensor
notation is introduced and is used throughout the formulation sections of the book. Chapter 2
covers the analysis of strain and displacement within the context of small deformation theory. The concept of strain compatibility is also presented in this chapter. Forces, stresses, and equilibrium are developed in Chapter 3. Linear elastic material behavior leading to the generalized Hook’s law is discussed in Chapter 4. This chapter also includes brief discussions on non-homogeneous, anisotropic, and thermoelastic constitutive forms. Later chapters more fully investigate anisotropic and thermoelastic materials. Chapter 5 collects the previously derived equations and formulates the basic boundary value problems of elasticity theory.
Displacement and stress formulations are made and general solution strategies are presented.
This is an important chapter for students to put the theory together. Chapter 6 presents strain
energy and related principles including the reciprocal theorem, virtual work, and minimum potential and complimentary energy. Two-dimensional formulations of plane strain, plane stress, and anti-plane strain are given in Chapter 7. An extensive set of solutions for specific two-dimensional problems are then presented in Chapter 8, and numerous MATLAB applications are used to demonstrate the results. Analytical solutions are continued in Chapter 9 for the Saint-Venant extension, torsion, and flexure problems. The material in Part I provides the core for a sound one-semester beginning course in elasticity developed in a logical and orderly manner. Selected portions of the second part of this book could also be incorporated in such a beginning course.
Part II of the text continues the study into more advanced topics normally covered in a second course on elasticity. The powerful method of complex variables for the plane problem is presented in Chapter 10, and several applications to fracture mechanics are given. Chapter 11 extends the previous isotropic theory into the behavior of anisotropic solids with emphasis for composite materials. This is an important application, and, again, examples related to fracture mechanics are provided. An introduction to thermoelasticity is developed in Chapter 12, and several specific application problems are discussed, including stress concentration and crack problems. Potential methods including both displacement potentials and stress functions are presented in Chapter 13. These methods are used to develop several three-dimensional elasticity solutions. Chapter 14 presents a unique collection of applications of elasticity to problems involving micromechanics modeling. Included in this chapter are applications for dislocation modeling, singular stress states, solids with distributed cracks, and micropolar, distributed voids, and doublet mechanics theories. The final Chapter 15 provides a brief introduction to the powerful numerical methods of finite and boundary element techniques.
Although only two-dimensional theory is developed, the numerical results in the example problems provide interesting comparisons with previously generated analytical solutions from earlier chapters.
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